Masdevallia caudata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 193. 1833.
Type: Colombia. Cundinamarca: “Hab. in subfrigidis regni Novogranatensis, prope S. Fortunato, florens Junio; Gudot. (hab. s. sp.)” (holotype, K-L; tracing of type, W)
Illustrated specimen: Colombia. Cundinamarca: Municipality of Granada, Sabaneta, 2700 m. January 2017. K. Gil-Amaya 206, D. Haelterman, D. Mejía & J. Mejía (LCDP voucher).
Etymology: From the Latin caudata, “with tails”, in reference to the long-caudate sepals.
Masdevallia caudata Lindl. is one of the most striking and commercialized species of the genus. This species is seriously threatened and it has been classified by Calderón et al. (2006) as an endangered species (EN) following IUCN criteria. Masdevallia caudata is recognized by the rounded, yellowish dorsal sepal, con- cave and striped with seven to nine purple-brown lines, the lateral sepals dotted with purple and the long, and slender, yellow tails. The petals are tridentate with a callus well-developed as a thin wing above the middle and a large, thick, retrorse process above the base. The column, petals, and lip stand erect and exposed in the center of the flower. . .