Masdevallia xanthina Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 13(1): 681. 1880.
Type: Colombia, without collection data, cultivated Apr. 1880 by Vietch 165 (holotype: W).
Illustrated specimen: Colombia. Tolima: Municipality of Villahermosa, vereda Samaria, 3020 m, pluvial mountain forest. 23 July 2019. M. A. Sierra-Ariza & A. Albino-Bohórquez 176 (TOLI; LCDP voucher).
Etymology: From the Greek xanthós, “yellow”, in reference to the color of the flower.
Masdevallia xanthina belongs to a group of morphologically similar taxa belonging to Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. subsect. Caudatae H.J. Veitch. Members of the species complex are distributed across the northern Andes and are characterized by the blackish ram- icauls, large flowers, elongate, slender, yellow tails, white petals with a marginal callus curved basally and simple, erect lip with a dark apical callus. Individuals of Masdevallia xanthina and M. klabochorum Rchb.f. from different populations show variation in the shape and proportion of the floral parts; differing essentially in the flower color and presence or absence of “eye-spots” at the base of the lateral sepals. . .